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The European environment – state and outlook 2010

The European environment – state and outlook 2010

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Climate change mitigation - Drivers & Pressures (SOER 2010)

The primary energy intensity in Belgium.

Key message

A decoupling of economic growth and primary energy consumption can be seen over the 1980-2007 period in all three regions of Belgium. However, in comparison to its neighbouring countries, Belgium scores weakly according to the Structural Indicator “energy intensity of the economy”.

Figures

Figure 1: Primary energy intensity in Belgium, 1980-2007

GDP index - Primary consumption index - Energy intensity index
Data source
http://statbel.fgov.be/nl/binaries/evolution_energy_market_2007_nl_tcm325-64918.pdf
http://statbel.fgov.be/fr/binaries/evolution_energy_market_2007_fr_tcm326-64918.pdf
Figure 1: Primary energy intensity in Belgium, 1980-2007
Fullscreen image Original link

Total primary energy intensity

Energy intensity measures the quantity of energy consumed by the economy to produce a production unit.

Having dropped sharply between 1980–1985, energy intensity continued to grow until 1998, when it began dropping regularly until 2002. It then increased slightly in 2003 before decreasing once again in 2006 and 2007. Energy intensity in 2007 is at the same level as in 1985 (Figure 1).

A decoupling of economic growth and primary energy consumption can be seen over the 1980-2007 period, with this often being cited as one of the objectives of sustainable development1.

This decoupling can be witnessed in all three regions in Belgium2. However, in comparison to its neighbouring countries, Belgium scores weakly according to the Structural Indicator ‘energy intensity of the economy‘ published annually by Eurostat (see http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1& plugin=1&language=en&pcode=tsien020 for details).

 


1 Le marché de l’énergie en 2007 – [The Energy Market in 2007], FPS Economy, Directorate-General Statistics and Economic Information

The final energy consumption by sector in Belgium.

Key message

In Belgium, buildings (residential and tertiary sector) are the number one final consumer of primary energy (31 %), followed by industry (29,9 %) and transport (22,7 %). During the period 1979-2007, the iron and steel sector experienced a 50,0 % drop in final consumption. The transport sector increased its final consumption by 60.4% during the same period.

Final energy consumption by sector

Final energy consumption is a country’s gross apparent primary energy consumption after deduction of processing activities and energy loss. Overall final energy consumption dropped at an annual rate of 0,9 % between 2000 and 2007, and Belgium registered an overall decline of 2,9 % in 2006-2007.

In Belgium, buildings (residential and tertiary sector) are the number one final consumer of primary energy (31 %), followed by industry (29,9 %) and transport (22,7 %). Non-energy uses, which are an activity indicator for the petrochemical industry (naphtha, natural gas) also account for a substantial part of consumption (Figure 2).

The iron and steel sector experienced a 50 % drop in final consumption over the 1979-2007 period, while industry as a whole saw its final consumption decrease by 10,4 % over the same period. However, industry (excluding the iron and steel industries) consumption increased by 20,8 % over the same period.

Despite a 1,2 % drop in consumption in 2007, the transport sector is one of the sectors which has seen the most spectacular increases in final consumption over the 1979-2007 period (+60,4 %).

The final consumption of the residential (and equivalent) sector dropped by 10,7 % over the 1979-2007 period, whereas that of the non-energy sector increased by 29 %. Final business consumption rose by 14,1 % over the same period.

 

Figure 2: Evolution of final energy consumption in Belgium (consumption in 2007, in Ktoe (NCV), and average annual growth rate in % calculated for the period 2000-2007)

 

Final consumption 2007 (Ktoe)

Growth 1979-2007 (%)

Annual average rate 1979-2007 (%)

Annual average rate 2000-2007 (%)

Share 1979 (%)

Share 2007 (%)

Iron and steel industry

3.076

-50,0

-2,4

-6,7

16,4

7,3

Other industries

9.450

+20,8

+0,7

+0,5

20,9

22,6

Transport

9.510

+60,4

+1,7

-0,1

15,8

22,7

Residential and equivalent

12.988

-10,7

-0,4

-1,4

38,8

31,0

Non-energy uses

6.848

+29,0

+3,0

+0,8

8,1

16,4

TOTAL

41.872

+11,9

+0,4

-0,9

100,0

100,0

Source: FPS Economy, SMEs, Self-Employed and Energy - The energy market in 2007–2008 edition

 

For more details per region, see the following sources:

Walloon Region

http://etat.environnement.wallonie.be/index.php?mact=tbe,m787b7,default,1&m787b7what=fiches&m787b7alias=Bilan-energetique-de-la-Region-wallonne_&m787b7returnid=40&page=40

Flemish Region

http://www.milieurapport.be/Upload/main/2.3_Energy%20flows%20in%20Flanders.pdf

Brussels-Capital Region

- in French: http://www.bruxellesenvironnement.be/etatdelenvironnement

(see more particularly "Synthèse de l'état de l'environnement 2007-2008" p.22 in "Synthèse 2009" and "Bilans énergétiques" in "Etudes")

- in Dutch: http://www.leefmilieubrussel.be/staatvanhetleefmilieu

(see more particularly "Synthese van de staat van het leefmilieu 2007-2008" p.22 in "Synthese 2009" and "Energiebalans" in "Studies")

- in English: http://www.bruxellesenvironnement.be/etatdelenvironnement

(see more particularly "Summary report of the state of the environment 2007-2008" p.24 in "Synthesis 2009")

 

The primary energy consumption by fuel in Belgium.

Key message

Primary energy consumption dropped on average by 0,3 % a year over the 2000-2007 period. The consumption of coal decline sharply whereas the use of renewables increased sharply in this period.

Figures

Figure 4: Primary generation of renewable energy in Belgium (2007).

Contribution of different sources to primary generation of renewable energy in Belgium (2007).
Data source
http://www.climat.be/IMG/pdf/NC5_EN.pdf
Figure 4: Primary generation of renewable energy in Belgium (2007).
Fullscreen image Original link

Primary energy consumption by fuel

Primary energy consumption dropped on average by 0,3 % per year over the 2000-2007 period (Figure 3). There are marked differences from one source to the next within this general decrease. Coal declined sharply (-45,2 %) during these seven years and only represented 7,8 % of total consumption in 2007, in particular due to declining demand by certain sectors (coking plants and power stations). Consumption of petroleum and of nuclear energy remained relatively stable. Renewable fuels saw a sharp increase (+17,1 % per year on average). The overall rate of dependence (ratio of net imports to gross internal consumption of primary energy) was 88,1 % in 2007. The relative rate of dependence on petroleum and petroleum products, which had slipped below the 50 % mark in 1999 and 2000, moved back over that level in 2007, to 53,3 %.

 

Figure 3: Evolution of primary energy consumption in Belgium - Gross apparent consumption in 2007, in Ktoe (NCV), and average annual growth rate in %, calculated for the period 2000-2007.

 

2007 (Ktoe)

2007 (share in %)

Evolution 2000-2007
(annual %)

Solid fuels

4.612

7,8 %

-8,2 %

Petroleum, petroleum products

23.073

39,2 %

-0,9 %

Natural gas

14.969

25,4 %

+1,6 %

Renewable fuels

2.917

5,0 %

+17,1 %

Nuclear energy

12.566

21,4 %

+0.0 %

Other (primarily electricity)

682

1,2 %

+7.4 %

TOTAL

58.819

100 %

-0,3 %

Source: FPS Economy, SMEs, Self-Employed and Energy, the energy market 2007

 

Primary energy intensity, the ratio of primary energy consumption to GDP expressed as a volume (1990 price), has been marking a break with the upward long-term trend since 1998.

Renewable energy still represents only a small share of primary energy use in Belgium (less than 1 % for the period 1990-2000 and 5,0 % in 2007). In 2007, the three main renewable energy sources used in Belgium were biomass (31,2 %), followed by hydraulic (28,9 %) and municipal waste (13,8 %) (see Figure 4).

 

For details per region on the primary energy consumption by fuel and specifically the share of the various renewable energy sources of the total renewable fraction, see the following references:

Walloon Region

http://etat.environnement.wallonie.be/index.php?mact=tbe,m787b7,default,1&m787b7what=fiches&m787b7alias=Sources-primaires-d-energie-et-emissions-de-polluants-atmospheriques_1&m787b7returnid=40&page=40

http://etat.environnement.wallonie.be/index.php?mact=tbe,m787b7,default,1&m787b7what=fiches&m787b7alias=Electricite-et-chaleur-d-origine-renouvelable-et-issues-de-la-cogeneration_1&m787b7returnid=40&page=40

Flemish Region

http://www.milieurapport.be/Upload/main/2.3_Energy %20flows %20in %20Flanders.pdf

http://www.milieurapport.be/Upload/main/2.3_Electricity %20production %20from %20renewable %20energy %20sources %20 %28green %20power %29.pdf

Brussels-Capital Region

- in French: http://www.bruxellesenvironnement.be/etatdelenvironnement
(see more particularly "Synthèse de l'état de l'environnement 2007-2008" p.22 in "Synthèse 2009" and "Bilans énergétiques" in "Etudes")

- in Dutch: http://www.leefmilieubrussel.be/staatvanhetleefmilieu
(see more particularly "Synthese van de staat van het leefmilieu 2007-2008" p.22 in "Synthese 2009" and "Energiebalans" in "Studies")

- in English: http://www.bruxellesenvironnement.be/etatdelenvironnement
(see more particularly "Summary report of the state of the environment 2007-2008" p.24 in "Synthesis 2009")

 

Greenhouse gas emission trends in Belgium.

Key message

Belgium is committed to reduce its GHG emissions by 7,5 % under the Kyoto protocol. Assuming a linear target path from 1990 to 2010, total GHG emissions in 2007 were 4 % below this target path.

Figures

Figure 5: Belgian greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2007

Belgian greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2007 (excluding LULUCF) compared with the Kyoto objective. The assumed base year for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions is 1990. For fluorinated gases (HFC, PFC and SF6) on the other hand, the assumed base year is 1995. The index value 100 on the Y-axis corresponds to the sum of CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions in 1990 and HFC, PFC and SF6 emissions in 1995. Since there was an increase of fluorinated gas emissions in Belgium during the period 1990-1995, the total of greenhouse gas emissions in 1990 is less than 100 %. The blue curve thus represents the total emissions of greenhouse gasses according to two different time references.
Data source
http://www.climat.be/IMG/pdf/NC5_EN.pdf
Figure 5: Belgian greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2007
Fullscreen image Original link

Figure 6: Regional greenhouse gas emissions trends in Belgium.

The assumed base year for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions is 1990. For fluorinated gases (HFC, PFC and SF6) on the other hand, the assumed base year is 1995. The index value 100 on the Y-axis corresponds to the sum of CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions in 1990 and HFC, PFC and SF6 emissions in 1995. All three curves thus represent the total emissions of greenhouse gasses according to two different time references. Since there is no difference between emissions of fluorinated gasses in the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region between 1990 and 1995, 1990 equals 100 %. However, due to an increase in fluorinated gas emissions in the Flemish Region during the same period, the total of greenhouse gas emissions in 1990 is less than 100 % in this region.
Data source
http://www.climat.be/IMG/pdf/NC5_EN.pdf
Figure 6: Regional greenhouse gas emissions trends in Belgium.
Fullscreen image Original link

Greenhouse gas emission trends

Total greenhouse gas emissions (without Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry - LULUCF) in Belgium amounted to 131.3 Mt CO2 eq. in 2007 – 8,3 % lower than in 1990[3]. They dropped by 9,9 % in 2007 compared with the base-year emissions (Figure 5).

Under the Kyoto Protocol and the EU ’burden-sharing’ agreement, Belgium is committed to reduce its GHG emissions by 7,5 %. Assuming a linear target path from 1990 to 2010, total GHG emissions in 2007 were 4 % below this target path. However, emissions are projected to increase over the coming years.

The major greenhouse gas emitted in Belgium is carbon dioxide (CO2), which accounted for 87,2 % of total emissions in 2007. Emissions of CO2 decreased by 3,4 % from 1990 to 2007, while CH4 and N2O dropped by 33 % and 25 % respectively over the same period. Fluorinated gas emissions dropped by 59 % over the 1995-2007 period.

The regional trends in GHG emissions are shown in Figure 6. In 2007, the Flemish Region accounted for 62 % of Belgian emissions, Wallonia for 35 % and the Brussels-Capital Region for 3 %.


[3] In accordance with the Kyoto Protocol, the base year is 1990 for CO2, CH4 and N2O, but 1995 for fluorinated gases (HFC, PFC and SF6).

 

Greenhouse gas emission trends in the Brussels-Capital Region.

Key message

GHG's in the Brussels-Capital Region are decreasing by almost 4% between 1990 and 2007. These gases are primarily emitted by heating in the residential and service industry (around 70 %) and road traffic (around 20 %). Heating is logically driven by climatic conditions and hence variations of emissions in Brussels are largely influenced by climatic variations. Since 2005, the emissions by buildings have tended to decline.

Brussels-Capital Region

The Brussels-Capital Region is a city of more than one million inhabitants. The companies present in the region are mostly small and medium-sized and are responsible for only a small share (about 7 %) of regional GHG emissions. GHG’s are primarily emitted by heating in the residential and service industry (around 70 %) and road traffic (around 20 %). Heating is logically driven by climatic conditions and hence variations of emissions in Brussels are largely influenced by climatic variations.. The global variations shown in Figure 6 follow climatic variations.

GHG's in the Brussels-Capital Region are decreasing by almost 4% between 1990 and 2007. According to the burden sharing between the 3 Regions and the federal state (2004), the Brussels-Capital Region, where agricultural and industrial activity is limited, may not increase its GHG's emissions by more than 3.475% over the 2008-2012 period compared to 1990. Mobility problems and energy use for the heating of buildings, which are difficult to correct in the short run, were recognized as specific for the Region.

Since 2005, the emissions by buildings have tended to decline, whereas , according to estimates, the entire stock of occupied dwellings grew between 2005 and 2007 (+2,4% for the population) and the stock of offices increased in the same period. This development is also related to milder weather conditions during the same time period.

Large variations can be observed in smaller emitter sectors, for example a reduction (around 60 %) of fugitive emissions, linked to the improvement of the gas distribution network (reduction of leakage) and an increase in fluorinated gas emission from refrigeration activities (including transport) and air conditioning by a factor of around 20 (mainly due to the replacement of gases covered by the Montreal Protocol by gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol). As a result of this increase, these emissions of fluorinated gases are now close to 5 % of regional emissions.

 

More information:
- in French : http://www.bruxellesenvironnement.be/etatdelenvironnement
(see more particularly "Synthèse de l'état de l'environnement 2007-2008" p.24 in "Synthèse 2009")
- in Dutch : http://www.leefmilieubrussel.be/staatvanhetleefmilieu
(see more particularly "Synthese van de staat van het leefmilieu 2007-2008" p.24 in "Synthese 2009" )
- in English : http://www.bruxellesenvironnement.be/etatdelenvironnement
(see more particularly "Summary report of the state of the environment 2007-2008" p.26 in "Synthesis 2009")

 

Greenhouse gas emission trends in the Flemish Region.

Key message

Greenhouse gas emissions in the Flemish Region are decreasing by about 5 % between 1990 and 2007. However, emissions in the transport sector and commercial/institutional sector are increasing.

Flemish Region

Overall greenhouse gas emissions in the Flemish Region are decreasing by about 5 % between 1990 and 2007 (including emissions of road transport calculated with the national approach and emissions of F-gases from 1995 onwards). Taking into account the most recent emission figures for road transport calculated with the MIMOSA IV-methodology, emissions even decreased with more than 7 % between 1990 and 2007. This new approach will be included in the official reporting obligations to the EC and the UNFCCC in 2010.

An important increase in greenhouse gas emissions was detected in the sectors of transport and the ‘other sectors[4]' (mainly in the commercial/institutional sector) between 1990 and 2007: The emissions in the sector of transport have been increasing since 1990 because of an explosive growth and an important use of motorised transport. This growth has been slowing down during the last few years. In the ‘other sectors’ a reduction in energy use (and consequently in the emissions of CO2) is detected after the large increase until 2003, but still the 2007 level is not yet below the 1990 level.

The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in these sectors (see ‘other sectors’ above) is undone by the reduction of emissions 1) in the sector of industrial processes (mainly due to the reduction of F-gasses between 1990 and 2003 and the measures taken in the chemical industry to reduce emissions of N2O), 2) in the sector of energetic industry because of a shift to the gaseous fuels and a larger share for CHP and renewables, 3) at the solid waste disposal sites 4) in the sector of agriculture (enteric fermentation as well as manure management) mainly due to a decrease of the total livestock and 5) in dwellings due to milder climate conditions.


[4] “other sectors” is a ‘rest category’ excluding the waste, agriculture, residential sector and all industrial sectors.

 

Greenhouse gas emission trends in the Walloon Region.

Key message

In Wallonia, emissions dropped considerably between 1990 and 2007. However, road transport-related emissions continued to increase, by around one third since 1990.

Walloon Region

In Wallonia, emissions dropped considerably between 1990 and 2007. This change was caused by several factors: the growing use of natural gas and biomass, and rational use of energy, particularly in the energy production sector and industry, improved industrial processes, the closure of iron and steel plants, biogas recovery and use in solid waste disposal sites and a cut in agricultural emissions following a reduction in the total number of livestock.

Finally, the very mild winters in 2006 and 2007 caused a sharp cut in heating-related emissions which in turn had a significant effect on global emissions. However, road-transport related emissions continued to increase. This growth has slowed down since 2005, but road transport nevertheless remains a critical sector, as its emissions have increased by around one third since 1990.