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The European environment – state and outlook 2010

The European environment – state and outlook 2010

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Waste - Drivers & Pressures (SOER 2010)

The generation of municipal waste per capita in the Flemish Region.

Key message

In 2008, 494 kg municipal waste per inhabitant was collected, of which 172 kg residual waste, the lowest value since 2000.

In 2008, 3 million tonnes of municipal waste were collected, which represents 494kg per inhabitant. That is an average of 7 kg per inhabitant less than the year before. Of this 494 kg per inhabitant, 172 kg is residual waste, which is 2 kg per inhabitant less than in 2007 and the lowest value since 2000. The quantity of municipal waste remained fairly stable over the period 2004-2008.

 

Amount of municipal waste

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(kg/inhabitant)

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Separately collected waste

292

292

307

295

316

309

313

327

322

Residual waste

191

180

184

175

178

175

173

174

172

Total

483

472

491

470

494

484

486

501

494

 

The generation of municipal waste per capita in the Walloon Region.

Key message

In 2008 462 kg municipal waste per inhabitant was collected, of wich 218 kg residual waste. Since 1997 separately collected waste amounts have increased to achieve, in 2008, 245 kg/inhab.

In 2008, almost 462 kg per inhabitant of municipal waste were collected in the Walloon Region, which represents 12 % less than EU-27 average. Since 1997, separately collected waste amounts have increased to achieve, in 2008, 245 kg/inhabitant. On the other hand, residual waste amounts has decreased to achieve, in 2008, 218 kg/inhab. Progress in separate collections of waste fractions may be explained by a growing use of the local recycling centres (container parks).

 

Amounts of municipal waste (kg/inhabitant)
  1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Separately collected waste 105.3 128.3 162.6 178.3 181.9 203.4 206.6 229.6 233.6 234.3 245.8 244.4
Residual waste 348.6 312.9 281.9 267.6 259.5 257.1 238.1 235.3 227.8 235.5 229.8 217.7
Total 453.9 441.1 444.5 445.9 441.3 460.5 444.7 464.9 461.4 469.8 475.6 462.2

Sources: SPW-DGARNE(DGO3)-DEMNA-DEE ; SPW-DGARNE(DGO3)-DSD-DIGD

The generation of municipal waste per capita in the Brussels-Capital Region.

Key message

In 2008 445 kg municipal waste per inhabitant was collected, of which 330 kg residual waste. In the interpretation one must take into account that the city has an important international and touristic status resulting in additional waste.

The following table shows municipal waste production collected by the public operator per inhabitant (see comments for indicator described in the “State and impacts” part). It has been decreasing  since 1999. It shows that around 25 % of waste is sorted.

In the interpretation of the ratio ‘MW/inhabitant’ one must take into account that the city is a very important basin of employment (about 53 % of the workers are commuters coming from the other regions) and has an important international and touristic status, resulting in additional waste. Moreover, there is an underestimation of the real population (cf. non-registered inhabitants and students not domicile in the Brussels-Capital Region). It is also expected that 30 % of this waste is produced by small enterprises which do not have a private waste collector.

 

Amount of municipal waste

(kg/inhabitant)

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Separately collected waste

103

107

101

107

117

116

115

114

116

Residual waste

412

404

394

363

360

353

343

340

330

Total

514

510

495

470

477

469

459

454

445

It should be recalled that the data are not really comparable between the three regions (see comments for indicator described in the “State and impacts” part). Moreover, due to its strongly urbanised character, the area of private gardens in the Brussels-Capital Region is less than the two other regions (less green waste). The trends of the data observed in the Brussels-Capital Region could possibly also be explained by a more important recourse of the companies, trade, offices to private waste collectors.

The generation of industrial waste towards the gross value added of the industry in the Flemish Region.

Key message

Between 1995 and 2007, the GVA from industry increases more quickly than the industrial waste production in Flanders.

Figures

Figure 6: Waste production in the Flemish Region (without: soil, c&d waste, sludges) from industry and GVA industry (1995 = 100%)

Figure 6: Waste production in the Flemish Region (without: soil, c&d waste, sludges) from industry and GVA industry (1995 = 100%)
Data source
http://www.ovam.be/
Figure 6: Waste production in the Flemish Region (without: soil, c&d waste, sludges) from industry and GVA industry (1995 = 100%)
Fullscreen image Original link

As one can see in the figure below, the GVA increases more quickly than the waste production in Flanders between 1995 and 2007. There is decoupling between the gross value added in the industry and waste production from the industry (containing waste from the extractive, manufacturing industry and electricity production). If the reliability of the estimated waste production for each year is taken into account in the trend analysis, the decoupling is even absolute, since the waste production declines. However, it is not clear whether this decline is significant.

The GVA in chained Euro’s  for Flanders is a rating and therefore only the linear trend line is indicated in the figure.

Industrial waste data are the result of an extrapolation. The blue dots give the extrapolated values, the blue line a linear trend line. The green line is the result of a weighted regression on these data. Because not all data are equally reliable, different weights are allocated to the different values (more reliable, more weight). Also the fact that the data contain paired observations is taken into account. Special software is used for this weighted regression.

 

The generation of industrial waste towards the gross value added of the industry in the Walloon Region.

Key message

Between 1995 and 2007, the GVA from industry generally increased in the Walloon Region whereas the industrial waste production increased sharply between 1997 and 2000, then fell between 2000 and 2007.

Figures

Figure 7: Industrial waste generation versus GVA in the Walloon Region (1995 - 2007)

Figure 7: Industrial waste generation versus GVA in the Walloon Region (1995 - 2007)
Data source
http://etat.environnement.wallonie.be/index.php?mact=tbe,m787b7,default,1&m787b7what=fiches&m787b7alias=Generation-de-dechets-industriels&m787b7returnid=40&page=40
Figure 7: Industrial waste generation versus GVA in the Walloon Region (1995 - 2007)
Fullscreen image Original link

The generation of industrial waste is based on a sample of the extractive, large and mediu-sized manufacturing and energy production industries in the Walloon Region and extrapolated to these three sectors. The generation of waste 1 by extractive, manufacturing industry and electricity in the Walloon Region increased sharply between 1997 and 2000, and then fell between 2000 and 2007. Since then, waste disposal has hovered around 6 300 kt. In descending order, the sectors producing the largest quantities of waste in 2007 were: (i) metal and metal-working industries (2 529 kt), (ii) food industry (1 211 kt), (iii) chemical, rubber and plastics industry (1 016 kt), (iv) timber industry and wood manufacture (560 kt).

The amounts of waste generated reflect the relative sizes of the different industrial sectors within the Walloon economy, and are strongly linked to production volumes. A proportion of this waste is, moreover, considered to be unavoidable waste, that is waste which is inevitably generated by current industrial processes. Changes in manufacturing processes and improvements of resources productivity, owing to the use of integrated technologies, are, however, enabling progress to be made in decoupling economic growth from the generation of waste.

 


Industrial waste generation (ktonnes) GVA - constant 1995 prices (million €)
1995 6707 9888
1996 6474 9669
1997 6521 10056
1998 7041 10476
1999 7208 10095
2000 7526 10467
2001 6940 10255
2002 6491 10085
2003 6376 10009
2004 6508 10234
2005 6283 10269
2006 6550 10541
2007 6277 10246

 


1 Excluding :

    - mineral waste (EWC- Stat version 3 - codes : 12.1 ; 12. 2 ; 12.3 ; 12. 5)

    - contaminated soils and polluted dredging spoils (EWC - Stat version 3 - code 12.6)

    - common sludges (EWC - Stat version 3 - code 11)

 

Generation of industrial waste towards the gross value added of the industry in the Brussels-Capital Region

Considering the particular context of the region (urban territory characterised by a dominant service sector due to its capital and international functions), this indicator is not relevant for the Brussels-Capital Region.

The amounts of household waste collected separately and not-separately per capita in the Flemish Region.

Key message

In 2008 72% of the household waste was collected separately. The proportion of waste collected separately has remained fairly stable since 2004.

Figures

Figure 8: Amounts of household waste collected separately in the Flemish Region

Figure 8: Amounts of household waste collected separately in the Flemish Region
Data source
http://www.ovam.be/jahia/Jahia/cache/off/pid/176?actionReq=actionPubDetail&fileItem=2211
Figure 8: Amounts of household waste collected separately in the Flemish Region
Fullscreen image Original link

In 2008 72 % of household waste was collected separately. The proportion of waste collected separately had remained fairly stable since 2004. The target is to achieve a separate collection level of 75 % by 2010 (Implementation Plan for the Environmentally Responsible Management of Household Waste).

Amount of household waste

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

target

(kg/inhabitant)

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2010

Separately collected waste

368

378

386

375

395

388

383

400

392

 

Residual waste

191

180

169

160

159

157

153

155

153

150

Total

560

558

555

535

554

545

537

555

545

560

 

The amounts of household and household-like waste collected separately and non-separately per capita in the Walloon Region.

Key message

In 2008 almost 62% of the household and household-like waste was collected separately. The proportion of waste collected separately has doubled since 1997.

Figures

Figure 9: Amounts of household waste collected separately in the Walloon Region

Figure 9: Amounts of household waste collected separately in the Walloon Region
Data source
http://etat.environnement.wallonie.be/index.php?mact=tbe,m787b7,default,1&m787b7what=fiches&m787b7alias=Collectes-selectives-des-dechets-menagers-et-assimiles&m787b7returnid=40&page=40%20
Figure 9: Amounts of household waste collected separately in the Walloon Region
Fullscreen image Original link

Steady progress has resulted in a doubling of the amount of household waste and household-like waste fractions collected sepa­rately in the Walloon region since 1997. In 2008, almost 62 % of household waste and household-like waste was collected separately, which is in line with the targets of the Plan wallon des déchets – Horizon 2010 (PWD).  

This evolution is mainly explained by the take-back obligations, the ban on landfilling of certain types of waste, the application of a new tax decree (from 2008 only practices aimed at waste valorisation are no longer taxed), the application of a tax on residual waste amounts and subsides given for implementing separate collection.

 

Amount of household and household-like waste (kg/inhab)
  1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Separately collected waste 175,6 199,2 248,1 266,2 269,8 297,0 306,6 332,1 337,4 342,8 351,9 352,2
Residual waste 348,6 312,9 281,9 267,6 259,5 257,1 238,1 235,3 227,8 235,5 229,8 217,7
Total 524,3 512,0 530,0 533,8 529,3 554,1 544,7 567,4 565,2 578,4 581,7 569,9

 

The amounts of household waste collected separately and non-separately in the Brussels-Capital Region (estimation).

Key message

The mixture of the different functions of the city makes it difficult to get separated data for household and household-like waste.

Figures

The Brussels-Capital Region doesn’t have specific data about household waste, but only about municipal waste. A ratio of 70 % for the residual stream and for the paper and carton is derived from literature. The particular economic situation of the Brussels-Capital Region (cf. 2. industrial waste) and the mixture of the different functions of the city explain the difficulties to get separate data for household-like waste and household waste. The table below only contains waste collected door-to-door, waste from container parks is not included.

 

Amount of household waste (ktonnes) (estimates)
 

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Separately collected waste

45

47

47

54

62

68

68

66

67

70

Residual waste

278

277

272

270

252

252

249

245

246

242

Total

323

323

320

323

314

320

317

311

313

312

Source: Rapport administratif 2007, Agence Bruxelloise pour la Propreté (French) and IBGE-BIM

 

The total material requirement in the Flemish Region.

Key message

Minerals and metals contribute the most to the TMR in the Flemish Region.

Figures

Figure 11: The Total Material Requirement (TMR) by raw material in the Flemish Region (1993 - 2004)

Figure 11: The Total Material Requirement (TMR) by raw material in the Flemish Region (1993 - 2004)
Data source
http://www.milieurapport.be/Upload/main/miradata/MIRA-T/01_sectoren/01_01/AG_Materiaalstromen.pdf
Figure 11: The Total Material Requirement (TMR) by raw material in the Flemish Region (1993 - 2004)
Fullscreen image Original link

Minerals (28 % of the total material requirement), metals (28 %), fossil fuels (18 %) and biomass (18 %) contribute the most to the TMR. Though more and more fuels are consumed, the contribution of the fossils, which consists mainly of fossil fuels, increases only slightly. This is because the hidden streams become smaller through the transition from pit coal and brown coal to gas and oil. The contribution of minerals and metals varies sharply and is mainly due to the large hidden streams connected to diamond and non-ferrous metals, of which the import strongly fluctuates during the considered period. The contribution of excavation decreases under the influence of a decreasing dredging activity.

The total material requirement in the Walloon Region.

Key message

The material flows related to metals and non-metallic minerals accounted for 2/3 of total TMR in the Walloon Region.

Figures

Figure 12: The Total Material Requirement (TMR) by raw material in the Walloon Region (1995 - 2007)

Figure 12: The Total Material Requirement (TMR) by raw material in the Walloon Region (1995 - 2007)
Data source
http://etat.environnement.wallonie.be/index.php?mact=tbe,m787b7,default,1&m787b7what=fiches&m787b7alias=Indicateurs-de-flux-de-matieres&m787b7returnid=40&page=40
Figure 12: The Total Material Requirement (TMR) by raw material in the Walloon Region (1995 - 2007)
Fullscreen image Original link

The total material requirement for the Walloon economy (TMR) amounted to approximately 289 Mt or 84 t/inhab in 2007. Globally, the TMR is almost 2.5 times the DMI (TMR = DMI + hidden flows), which highlights the relative importance of local unused material flows and indirect flows from abroad. The material flows related to metals and non metallic minerals accounted for 2/3 of total TMR. These values reveal the importance of these two types of industrial activity in the Walloon economy. In opposite to DMI, there is no decoupling between TMR and GDP.  

 

The total material requirement in the Brussels-Capital Region

This indicator is not available for this region (very difficult to estimate with enough accuracy for a city).